Cultural policies are a relatively recent phenomenon in Spain. So in a way in the last 25 years we have had the possibility to see the construction of this process from zero to the current level, which is not very far from the normal practice in Europe. For other European countries the relevant problem is not to understand the origins of cultural policies but to explain the current realities of the cultural sectors and what role the state plays in this framework. Although this is not an empirical work on cultural policies in Spain, in a certain sense, Spanish circumstances and historical data might bias the theoretical focus of this work, but we use this historical proximity to get to certain microfoundations of cultural policies, (and we do so in an unusual way), which might be more hidden in other consolidated and experienced realities. And this “must be” objective is useful on a more generalised level. If this “must be” is not met, the exercise will not be worth the effort.